Walk begins at City end of The Marina.
Below is a brief historical walking trail, which covers some of the topics on my physical walking tour. The information is abstracted from various articles from my Our City, Our Town column in the Cork Independent, 1999-present day, Cork Independent Our City, Our Town Articles | Cork Heritage
A stroll down The Marina is popular by many people. The area is particularly characterised by its location on the River Lee and the start of Cork Harbour. Here scenery, historical monuments and living heritage merge to create a historical tapestry of questions of who developed such a place of ideas. Where not all the answers have survived,
The Marina is lucky, unlike other suburbs, that many of its former residents have left archives, autobiographies, census records, diaries, old maps and insights into how the area developed. These give an insight into ways of life and ambitions in the past, some of which can help the researcher in the present day in understanding The Marina’s evolution and sense of place going forward.
From Navigation Wall to Marina Walk:
Cork’s Marina, originally called the Navigation Wall (a dock for ships), was completed in 1761. Following the constitution of the Cork Harbour Commissioners in 1820 and the introduction of steam dredging a vigorous programme of river and berth deepening, quay and wharf building commenced.
In 1820, Cork Harbour Commissioners formed and purchased a locally built dredger. The dredger deposited the silt from the river into wooden barges, which were then towed ashore. The silt was re-deposited behind the Navigation Wall. During the Great Famine, deepening of the river created jobs for 1,000 men who worked on creating the Navigation Wall’s road. A fine row of elms planted c.1856 by Prof. Edmund Murphy as a crop and tree growing experiment.
in 1870, the Gaelic poet and scholar Donncha Ó Floinn put forward to the Improvements Committee of Cork Corporation that the Navigation wall be named Slí na hAbhann, which means the ‘pathway by the river’. Ó Floinn’s proposal was not accepted. The matter came before the Improvements Committee again in 1872. This time Ó Floinn suggested that the promenade be named ‘The Marina’. He outlined that ‘The Marina’ was the name allocated to recently reclaimed land near Palermo in Sicily. In July 1872, Cork Corporation formally adopted ‘The Marina’ as the name of the new promenade.
Shandon Boat Club:
The Shandon Boat Club, although founded in May 1877, the lineage of the club stretches back to the beginning of organised competitive amateur rowing in Cork twenty years earlier. In 1858 Cork Harbour Rowing Club (CHRC), was founded. Ten years later, in 1868, Queens College Rowing Club was founded by a number of members who left CHRC after a dispute and nine years later that club changed its name to Shandon Boat Club, due to the lack of “college men” rowing with the club by that time.
In 1871 Cork Corporation granted land to Queens College Rowing Club to build a boathouse on the Navigation Wall of the Marina and this boathouse was subsequently knocked and replaced in 1896 by the building still in use today. The new building was designed by the well-known Cork architect, James McMullen. The practice of James McMullen’s was a varied one, including ecclesiastical, hospital, industrial, commercial and domestic work, primarily in the city and county of Cork. He was architect to the South Infirmary, Cork, for some thirty years and was appointed local engineer and valuer for the Cork Junction Railway in 1904. Some of his largest and best known works apart from the Honan Chapel included Marina Flour Mills on Victoria Quay (1890-92), the Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital on Western Road (1895-97), the Fr Mathew Pavilion Museum at the Cork International Exhibition (1902), additions to the sanctuary for the Capuchin Fathers at Holy Trinity Church (1906) and the restoration after destruction by fire of Castle Freke House (with architect, Kaye-Parry & Ross) in 1910-12.
The second of the ESB’s led projects in 1950s Cork was that that of the steam powered station on The Marina (first being the Lee Hydroelectric Scheme). Irish industry showed an overwhelming preference for electric power because of its availability, economy and convenience.
Up to the late 1940s, power came from Ardnacrusha, Pigeon House on the Liffey, and Alleywood or Portarlington. In the event of Ardnacrusha not operating for any reason, power had to be transmitted over long distance, which, experience had shown was an unsatisfactory arrangement. Before World War II, this possible difficulty was foreseen and plans were laid by the ESB for a Cork station. Owing to immediate post-war difficulties the preliminary work could not be undertaken until 1950, and the near completion of such a big undertaking in such as short space of time represented a notable achievement in its day.
Construction of the Marina station began in 1951. Operating from 1954, it fed electric power into the national network for use in homes, factories, streets, highways and farms throughout the south of Ireland. The station was the seventh power station to go into operation since the end of the war.
The now decommissioned Marina Station occupies (still does) a commanding location on a 13-acre site facing Cork quays. Surrounding it at one time was Messrs Henry Ford and Son’s Motor assembly works, Dunlops Ltd rubber factory, the towering silos of the Cork Milling Co Ltd and National Flour Mills Ltd.
View 1954 promotional material here:
News story on closing ESB Marina: ESB’s Marina power station facing closure (echolive.ie)
On 11 May 1883, Cork Corporation proceeded to appoint a qualified parson to the position of Caretaker of the Marina at a salary of 15s per week, with residence, fuel, and uniform clothing. The first caretaker was Denis Murphy who gave 30 years of service. The stylish lodge that was constructed was present for over 90 years before its demolishment.
The Drinking Fountain:
At the city end just outside Shandon Rowing Club is a grassy mound on which a long time ago stood a drinking fountain, which was donated by Cantillan family. The remains of it are still there, the square concrete base, the four cast iron columns, which supported an artistically designed jet through which water once gurgled.
The Captain Hanson Flag Pole:
Further on is another grassy mound topped with a conical concrete base surrounded with ancient rusting iron railings. Inside the railings is equally rusting iron cylinder with an inscription. It was once a flag pole. The inscription reads: “This flagstaff of Douglas Pine was presented to the Corporation of Cork by Captain Frederick Hanson of the ship Grange – Height 140 feet; diameter at base 16 inches; diameter at top 11 inches; growth 180 years. Erected May 16 1864 – John Francis Maguire, MP, Mayor”.
Next to the mound is an old iron canon gun from Sebastopol. It was captured during the Crimean War. The mound was originally flanked by two old guns mounted on wooden carriages. They were originally installed at the end of the South Mall by the Grand Parade, to embellish the equestrian statue of George II. When it was destroyed in 1862, the guns were moved to the Marina. The second one is now missing as is the wooden carriage of the gun removing.
In the early twentieth centuries, there were four ferries across the river: one from Sunday’s Well to Ferry Walk, one from Patrick’s Quay to Anderson’s Quay, and another from Penrose Quay to Victoria Quay. When Daly’s Bridge and Clontarf Bridge were built, they were no longer required. The fourth, took the passenger from the Lower Glanmire Road to the Marina. It was sanctioned by Cork Corporation and established by a member of the Cork family of the O’Sheas in 1844. The initial nominal rent was one shilling per year whilst the rate was struck at one half penny a passenger.
For followers of the game, of hurling and football games at the Cork Athletic Grounds, living in the north-eastern parts of the city – and for the many who cycled up from Glanmire, Riverstown, Glounthaune and Carrigtwohill—it was a real useful institution which saved them the long trip around via Albert Quay and the Centre Park Road. The ferry ceased in 1961 due to rising costs, particularly insurance charges, have made it operation an uneconomic pro position and the proprietors were forced to lay the boats up for the last time. Thus an 82 years old service has passed away.
In the days of the Cork electric trams (1898-1931) the ferry reached the peak of its popularity and during the summers of those years nearly every tram arriving at the Tivoli terminus brought passengers intending to cross in the ferry and return to Cork via the Marina. In the 1940s and 1950s the ferry was associated almost exclusively with GAA fixtures, and many was the memorable county final or Munster championship game, which was served by the boats. Many thousands of residents of the Lower Road. St Luke’s, Dillon’s Cross, and used the ferry for many years.
For many years up to the late twentieth century, music could be enjoyed from the band stand on The Marina. The first of the evening promenades (established by the Mayor) on the New Wall, took place on 21 June 1866.
The Cork Examiner reported on 22 June 1866 (p.2):
“The evening was delightfully fine, quite worthy of midsummer day, and some thousands of respectable persons, including many of the working classes, availed of the proposed treat. A German band had been engaged lor the occasion, and performed in the new orchestra, now nearly completed, which has been erected for the accommodation of bands on the Wall. The new flag of the Corporation – a green banner, displaying the Cork Arms, in gold was hoist on the handsome flag staff, but the light evening breeze scarcely sufficed to display it. The path was in excellent condition for promenaders; and altogether, the appearance of the New Wall embraced much of the picturesque. The amount of healthful enjoyment conferred on thee citizens by his Worship’s simple contrivance, is scarcely to be estimated. It is right to add, however, that the quality of the music was not quite what many of our rather fastidious citizens would have admired”.
Lee Rowing Club:
Lee Rowing Club, founded in the 1850s, has had a long and varied history and the club. The club had its initial headquarters near the Cork Corporation yard on Albert Quay, and won the Glenbrook international race in 1862.
In 1864 the premises were destroyed by fire and in the early 1870’s the club moved to a new clubhouse and rooms in Lower Glanmire Road and rowed from the rear of the present Ferry Boat Inn.
In 1880 Lee Rowing Club moved to its present site on the banks of the River Lee at the Marina and built the present clubhouse around 1886.
Lee Rowing Club also changed its name for a span of 18 years in the 1870’s to Cork Boat Club and reverted to the name Lee again on 25 March 1888.
Not too many people know that the wooden top half of the clubhouse was one of the exhibition halls used in the Cork International Exhibition in 1902. After the exhibition the clever and resourceful club members purchased their favourite exhibition hall and floated it down the river to the Marina. There it was placed on brick walls and made into the upper storey of the clubhouse. Years later when the roof began to leak the oarsmen put a new roof over the old one. The old building has since been replaced with a modern one but with a hint to the old style original.
In the early days members of the Drapers’ Club in Cork joined Lee Rowing Club and later on the Drapers’ Club set up and ran what is now the Cork City Sports meeting. The Drapers were also responsible for the setting up of the Lees GAA team, which also included members of Lee Rowing Club in the old days.
Walk to the seawall to observe the remains of the Gunpowder Pier from where in the nineteenth century gunpowder from the mills at Ballincollig was loaded. Its location here is a safety perspective – it’s away from the central docks area – so an accidental explosion was not as lethal to those around. there was a small storehouse and jetty at which gun powder was loaded into barges, to be taken to the arsenal at Rocky Island. It was almost a daily sight to see the two horsed covered wagons, painted yellow, making their way down the Centre Park Road.
The completion of the Navigation Wall led to a large tract of land behind the wall, stretching from the Marina west to Victoria Road, being left in a semi-flooded condition. In the decade of the 1840s, City engineer Edward Russell was commissioned to present plans for the reclamation of this land, some 230 acres. Russell’s plan proposed the extension and widening of the Navigation Wall creating the Marina Walk, to exclude tidal water entering the land. He proposed the construction of a reservoir (the present Atlantic Pond), and the erection of sluice gates to facilitate the drainage and exclusion of water.
The slobland was gradually reclaimed and became a park and was used as a racecourse from 1869 to 1917.In March 1869, Cork Corporation leased to Sir John Arnott & others the land for a term of five years and for the purpose of establishing a race course. In 1892, the City and County of Cork Agricultural Society leased space from Cork Corporation in the eastern section of the Cork Park, which became the Cork Showgrounds. In 1917 a sizeable portion of the park was sold to Henry Ford to manufacture Fordson Tractors. Both the latter have a depth of history and memories attached to them.
Nature walk with Jim Wilson at the Atlantic Pond:
Cork Blackrock and Passage Railway Line:
The age of the railways also came to the forefront of the visions of Cork planners in the 1830s. In 1836, two years after the construction of Ireland’s first railway between Dublin and Kingstown (Dun Laoghaire), a railway was proposed to connect the city to Passage via Blackrock. Passage itself was an important minor port in Cork’s lower harbour. In 1836, the lands of Lakelands and Ballinure were surveyed and the engineer, Charles Vignoles planned the routeway of the railway itself.
In 1837, the Passage Railway Bill was passed in the Westminster Parliament but work only got underway in the late 1840s. By this time, the Cork Passage Railway Company had been reformed into the Cork, Blackrock and Passage Railway Company. Legislation was passed for this company in 1846 and in September of this year, the company’s engineer Sir John MacNeil carried out the relative survey work.
The proposed line would run close to the south of the Navigation Wall (now the site of the Marina) on reclaimed land and remain close to the river to Passage. Work began in June 1847.
Due to the fact that the construction was taking place during the Great Famine, there was no shortage of labour. The entire length of track between Cork and Passage was in place by April 1850 and within two months, the line was opened for passenger traffic.
The terminus, designed by Sir John Benson, was based on Victoria Road but due to poor press was moved in 1873 to Hibernian Road. In the late 1800s, the Cork Blackrock and Passage Railway also operated a fleet of river steamers in competition with River Steamer Company (R.S.C).
By 1932, the increase in the use of motor cars caused a decrease in the use of the line by passengers. Consequently, the railway was forced to close.
Much of the traces of the Cork-Blackrock line have been destroyed while the Blackrock-Passage section is now a pedestrian walkway with several platforms and the steel viaduct that crossed the Douglas viaduct still in public view. The site of the second Cork terminus lies opposite the National Sculpture Factory.
All that is left of the bridge are stone walls. Built in 1859, it was designed by Sir John Benson, one of the leading architects and engineers of his day. It had a wrought-iron spiral stairs on both sides with a timber platform, 28 feet long and 14 feet 6 inches above the tracks, surrounded by an ornamental trellis.
The site of a castle folly from the early nineteenth century was named after the local family of Barrington. The folly was a social club headed up by Sir David Perrier, Mayor of Cork in 1815. He lived in Ballinure House, Blackrock. He was a glass manufacture, sugar refiner, paper maker and distiller.
Cork Main Drainage:
Work started on the city centre section of the £120 million Cork main drainage on 19 April 1999 with the laying of sewerage and drainage pipes along the main streets.
This was part of one of the largest engineering and environmental projects ever undertaken by a local authority in Ireland to comply with new stringent EU regulations.
The scheme will include: a new sewer system in the city central island streets that will be pumped into Horgan’s Quay; this will be connected to a main trunk sewer on the southern side of the river by a large underwater siphon.
The main trunk sewer was brought from Kennedy Quay to bring wastewater to a new pumping station at a site of Atlantic Pond.
The sewerage was to be pumped from there to a treatment plant site at Carrigrenan at Little Island with an outfall pipeline at Marino Point.
At a post show discussion on 1 August 1891 at a general meeting led Mr A Ferguson, former chairman of the County of Cork Agricultural Society proposing that a permanent show yard be erected in a portion of the Cork Race Park with grounds 20 acres in extent. The first annual show to be held on the new grounds was held on Thursday and Friday 7 and 8 July 1892. In the post show discussion, several other ideas were discussed as how to develop the new grounds, in particular the set of the general committee, developing a cattle ring, a galloping space and a proper system of distributing tickets.
As the County of Cork Agricultural Society developed its new home in the Cork Park Racecourse, it was dependent on the success of its shows and the subscriptions and voluntary contributions of its members. In 1908 the name of the Cork Agricultural Society was changed to the Munster Agricultural Society.
A visit to the annual Cork Summer Show was an annual ritual for many Corkonians. . It was so important that a lot of the offices would close down for the Wednesday afternoon so the people could go to the show – it was like a public holiday. It was a sort of social outing where people would come year after year to meet up.
However, as the decades of the late twentieth century progressed the economic recessions forced the drivers of the Irish economy to diversify. Agriculture went through a lot of reform and the show itself started to tail off and was probably a victim of the Celtic Tiger and the shift in the economy from agriculture to other industries like pharmaceuticals, the IT sector and the construction sector. The creation of Cork City Council’s South Docklands plan brought further changes to the Munster Agricultural Society.
The Council’s compulsory purchase order indirectly sped up a future plan for the society. In July 2009, for the first time in its history, the Cork Summer Show was held outside the city. A 60-acre site, just off the Ballincollig Bypass, became the new home for the Munster Agricultural Society’s two-day show. This became the new chapter in the proud history of the Munster Agricultural Society.
Páirc Uí Chaoimh:
At the time of the GAA’s establishment in 1884, society people were responding to their own recession – a time of continued emigration, uneasy economic decline. In Cork, both the butter and beef markets were in decline and the City looked towards new leaders like Charles Stewart Parnell to voice their reactions in Westminster to difficult times. Gaelic games represented everything Irish and a hopeful embrace of Irish Nationalism.
Eleven days after the creation of the new establishment the first GAA meeting under its auspices was held in Toames, near Macroom, County Cork. A second meeting to help develop the ideas of the GAA was held in the Victoria Hotel, Cork, on 27 December 1884. In late 1886 the First Cork County Board was formed with the first County Championship, took place on 6 March 1887 at Cork Park. First County Convention took place at the Mechanics Hall, Grattan Street. on 27 December 1887. It was attended by the representatives of 62 Clubs.
From mid-summer 1892, the Munster Agricultural Society decided to rent out its new grounds to interested groups – the Gaelic Athletic Association, Cork Cycle Club, Cork Athletic Club, United Football Club, the Irish Automobile Club and the Cork Gun Club. The county board built its own small stadium on the land in 1898. The Cork Athletic Grounds opened in 1904and hosted All Ireland finals, Munster finals and National League games.
In 1972 it was decided to redevelop the Athletic Grounds as an alternative, and additional land was acquired from the Munster Agricultural Society, whose premises adjoined the Athletic Grounds. The new stadium area covered almost 9 acres, with works undertaken by HMC Construction Ltd. Work began in April 1974, though details of the new stadium “of the most modern design and facilities” were not unveiled until a press conference took place in the Imperial Hotel, Cork on 26 July 1974. The new stadium was estimated to cost approximately £1 million, but ultimately overran to £1.7 million.
Known as Páirc Uí Chaoimh, in commemoration of the late general-secretary of the GAA, Pádraig Ó Caoimh, the stadium was to have a capacity of 50,288. Designed by the Cork city firm of consultant engineers, Horgan and Lynch, Páirc Uí Chaoimh was designed to have seating for 19,688 spectators. it officially opened on 6 June 1976.
In May 2014, the Irish Government sanctioned a €30 million grant to help fund the regeneration of the stadium. The work was due to start in summer 2014, and on 6 July 2014, the stadium hosted its last ever provincial football final.
After over two years of work, which created 500 construction jobs and cost in the region of €80 million, the eyesore of the old concrete bowl has now been replaced by a state-of-the-art arena. With the exception of a few beams in the terracing, the stadium has been rebuilt from scratch. Behind the large South Stand, there’s also an all-weather pitch on the land which was once the Cork Showgrounds.
Watch short news report on the Old Pairc Ui Chaoimh with Marty Morrisey:
Watch a short news documentary on the new Pairc Ui Chaoimh with Alan Quinlan:
The earliest and official evidence for settlement in Blackrock dates to c.1564 when the Galway family created what was to become known as Dundanion Castle. Adjacent the ruinous castle is the original slipway, which became known as King’s Dock and is attached to a legend that William Penn used it for his departure point for America in the 1680s. It is overgrown but still present. Its distance from the present River Lee reveals the hard slog involved in reclaiming areas such The Marina and environs from the river. The castle is grilled up but its limestone blocks are still impressive.
A diary book survives for Eliza Deane in 1832 in the Cork Archives. Eliza’s husband was the well-known Cork architect, Thomas Deane. Entries for 8-9 March 1832, recount the laying of the first stone of their new house by their ‘beloved son’ Thomas Newenham Deane. The stone was originally the top stone of ‘old Dundanion Castle’. She also mentions stone masons making ‘a ‘picturesque ruin’ of Dundanion Castle.
The Marina Meadow:
This park within the Marina park is the host to a Cork Healthy Cities project. They have created a wonderful way to get out in the fresh air with a tree trail adventure. The benefits are numerous – going outdoors, learning to read maps, finding out about how to identify trees, having fun, and not to mention all the benefits for mental health and wellbeing of just being immersed in green, communing with nature. click here for a larger pdf map,
During and up to the early years of the twentieth century berths were deepened at low water to keep all shipping afloat at lowest tides. Wharves and deep water quays were built and berths were deepened. In 1919 the Cork Harbour Commissioners acquired from the Board of Trade 153 acres of slobland at Tivoli for the purpose of pumping dredged material ashore, thus creating new land for industrial purposes. This happened over several decades. In the early 1950s oil storage depots were developed on the site. A further ten acres were made available for development circa 1960.
From 1960, modern Cork Harbour began to emerge, with the construction of oil terminals, steel mills, shipyards, deep water ferry port and industrial base. The entire concept of transporting general cargo underwent radical changes with the introduction of containerisation. That brought about revolutionary changes in ports.
Whereas previously the only requirements of general cargo services were quays and adjoining transit sheds, the ports now had to provide quays with high load-bearing qualities and wide aprons, specialised container cranes, large marshalling areas for containers and further specialised handling machinery within the container compounds.
At Tivoli Industrial and Dock Estate new facilities included new container, roll-on roll-off and conventional berths, a 30-ton gantry-type container crane, a modern transit shed, a passenger terminal and office block and an extensive paved area for the marshalling of containers and commercial vehicles. Thirty-seven acres were allocated for general cargo purposes.
Watch short films on the work at Tivoli Docks here and in Cork Harbour:
Blackrock Pier Grotto:
On 26 March 1958, a meeting was called in the Blackrock Rowing Club by a group of local people to erect a grotto. They invited the various organisations within the parish to attend. As a result, a committee was formed with Michael Sheehan as Chairperson, Breda Kelly as Hon.Secretary and Martha Moynihan as Treasurer. 35 more volunteers made up the group and they duly set about their objective.
A site was acquired at the end of the Marina (just above where the fishermen kept their boats in the winter time. The Cork city gardener, Mr Denis Gallagher was invited to attend one of the meetings and he gave some ideas on what style of Grotto to erect. He designed it and supervised its construction
Initially, work progressed very speedily. Two lorries were hired at a cost of 20 shillings to aid the construction and the main statue was ordered from Denis McCarthy of White Street. Materials were purchased from William Ellis & Sons. The grotto is constructed of massive red sandstone boulders from Tivoli quarry, the majority of which are three to five tons in weight and faces west, towards the River and the Marina.The statues of Our Lady and St Bernadette are of white Italian marble. A local electrician, Mr J Tobin, completed the flood lighting and12 star halo over the Our Lady statue.
On Wednesday 28 September 1960, the Grotto was officially opened and blessed by parish priests Rev Fr Aherne, ably assisted by Fr Cummins and Fr Crowley.
Cork Boat Club:
In August 1898 the Cork Boat Club was founded. Premises were leased at the fisheries in Tivoli, boats were purchased and on its first outing at Cobh Regatta in 1899 the young club had its first successes. In 1902 at the International Regatta at the Marina a Junior VII was successful against eight other crews. The spectators were so enthralled by this success that a massive collection was taken up and prompted the committee to rent the old Coastguard premises at Undercliffe Blackrock which remains the site of the club’s modern building/ home to the present day.
The original Boat House was a pavilion from the Cork International Exhibition and housed the club’s boats and equipment until 1939. The old Coastguard building was converted into dressing rooms and Club rooms fronted by well laid out gardens and a beautiful lawn on which band promenades every weekend considerably helped club funds.
The Club’s first major success was in 1905 when the Leander Ship was won for the first time. This Trophy had been presented in 1904 by the Leander Rowing Club in appreciation for the wonderful hospitality they had received from the citizens and Regatta Committee and Trinity were the first winners of the Trophy.
Within the heart of Convent Avenue, there is a lovely stone wall, which has always impressed me and which separates higher ground from the avenue itself. Random rubble in its nature, it is impressive and adds to the aesthetics of a once very populous area. Around it is a series of modern day houses, but amidst these are a series of cottages, their present day paintwork belying their true nature of times gone by.
With more and more British government reports and antiquarian accounts of Ireland, coming online, recently I stumbled across a report from 1843, which focussed on this area and helps to reconstruct life there at that time. The report entitled the “Physical and Moral Condition of the Working Classes in the Parish of St Michael Blackrock near Cork” was read by North Ludlow Beamish, President of the Cork Scientific and Literary Society, before the statistical section of the British Association of the Advancement of Science at Cork August 1843. Of course, this data describes the pre-famine world of Blackrock.
For the fishermen it was an endless struggle each year to survive. There is an interesting link by this group to national politics and struggles in the late nineteenth century. Several fishermen went on to play with the Cork National Hurling and Football club, which was formed in 1886. Indeed the advent of the nickname “the Rockies” describes not only a terrific hurling team today but a link into the past, where action and innovation were survival mechanisms for the families of the players
North Ludlow Beamish’s paper is full of insights into the area surrounding Convent Avenue. He notes that population of Blackrock and its immediate environs in April 1843 was 2,630 consisting of families living in 413 houses. A total of 61 houses were uninhabited and 9 were in the progress of building. Of the population 2,181 are Roman Catholics and 443 Protestants including dissenters. There were 557 families. Ninety families were living in one roomed houses, 260 in two rooms and 207 in three or more rooms. The whole number of the gentry was 372 leaving that of the working classes numbering 2,258, and of these 1,125 were males and 1,133 females.
The trades Beamish listed were varied; brick makers (numbering 56), cabinet makers (2), carpenters (15), coopers (3), farmers (53), fishermen (111), gardeners (32), gingle drivers (13, generally owners), lime burners (18), masons (14), male servants (79), shoemakers (14), slaters (12), smiths (9), tailors (10). Male children numbered 426. As for females, their total was 1133 with 372 employed as servants in work in fields. Female children, aged and infirm numbered 453 whilst 305 were unemployed.
***stay tuned to www.corkheritage.ie for a Blackrock Village tour to be posted