2014-16 County Cork & 1916 Memories

Cork Harbour & Region Memories

27 November 2014, Part 1, The Edge of Memory (To begin a series on the histories and the cultural DNA of Cork Region, the question is where to start), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11045

 

4 December 2014, Part 2, The Wreckage of the Past (The amount of boats that have plied Cork Harbour is immeasurable. The large volume of extant admiralty charts from different periods of time point to negotiation around rocks, shallows and islands, and show carved out navigation routes), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11055

 

11 December 2014, Part 3, Recovering the Vikings (The recent publication Archaeological Excavations at South Main Street 2003-2005, edited by Ciara Brett and Maurice Hurley, brings many nuggets of information to the public realm on early to mid twelfth century Cork), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11074

 

18 December 2014, Part 4, The Bristol Connection (As Cork developed in the twelfth century, from historical and archaeological perspectives, one of its earliest known connections to another port city was with Bristol), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11081

 

8 January 2015, Part 5, Tales of Two Cities (With the Irish Channel being a type of maritime motorway in its day, the connection between Cork and Bristol was close during the early thirteenth century), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11129

 

15 January 2015, Part 6, Making Cork Medieval (The Watergate complex, comprising Cork’s medieval port, docks and custom house, would have been impressive. The gate allowed controlled access into a private world of merchants and citizens – the masts of ships, vessels filled with goods and people, creaking as their wooden hulls knocked against the stone quays), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11145

 

22 January 2015, Part 7, The Towns We Know Well (In the thirteenth century, places such as the walled town of Cork, and developing towns such as Kinsale and Youghal became centres for collecting masses of local produce for export), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11160

 

29 January 2015, Part 8, A Taste of France in Medieval Cork (One of Cork’s imports in the fourteenth century embodied change and connections to a wider empire and the diffusion of new cultural products. Cork’s large wine trade was part of mass consumer culture and this is reflected in the substantial amount of French pottery turning up on medieval archaeological sites in the city), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11175

 

5 February 2015, Part 9, Links to an Enchanting Port (Through Bordeaux and being on the edge of outposts of Anglo-Norman Rule, new links for Cork were created with the Iberian Peninsula. In 1360, new trade routes were established with Spanish and Portuguese ports, especially with Lisbon and Oporto), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11180

 

12 February 2015, Part 10, Cork’s Medieval Woollen Trade (The construction of Cork history has a habit (probably like elsewhere as well) to reduce Cork’s international connections to just lists. Mining into the cities that Cork was connected with does show allow a way of reflecting more on the energy, drive and forces at work in maintaining a city and its urbanity), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11185

 

19 February 2015, Part 11, Charters and Governance (If Cork’s maritime connections in medieval times created financial profit and a basis for a settlement, the idea of Cork as a civilised place, a civitas, or a social body of the citizens united by law, was as important), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11201

 

26 February 2015, Part 12, Medieval Pomp: Bread Checks and Dart Throwing (The charters granted to Cork in the Middle Ages created many of the traditions this city still participates in today), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11208

 

5 March 2015, Part 13, Fifteenth Century Change in Munster (Henry VII’s charter of 1500 to Cork recognised the potential of the harbour and the idea of possessing it as a territory. However by this year, the old Anglo-Norman feudal manors were collapsing, and even the great Earl of Desmond territory that replaced them was dissipating), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11216

 

12 March 2015, Part 14, Eloquent War Councils at Blarney (The halls of Blarney Castle by the sixteenth century witnessed its fair share of war councils. Rough maps spread on the castle’s central hall table, plotted territory held and tensions and conflicts at play in the Munster region. In our time we can only imagine these worlds of conflict and negotiation), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11229

 

19 March 2015, Heritage Awards for Cork Schools 2015 (This year marks the twelfth year of the Discover Cork: Schools’ Heritage Project, which is co-ordinated by myself. This year’s Project culminates with an award ceremony on Friday 20 March for best projects for city-based schools), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11239

 

26 March 2015, Part 16, A Map of Muskerry (A glance at a map called Map of Muskerry from the book Pacata Hibernia (1633) shows the extent of territorial control by English and Irish families. Castles abound the map), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11263

 

2 April 2015, Part 17, Carew’s Campaigns (George Carew’s impact on the cultural and political landscape of Munster was vast. By the spring of 1586 Carew had been knighted and was sent on a private mission by Elizabeth I to Ireland), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11275

 

9 April 2015, Part 18, Stories in Stone (Staying with George Carew’s map of sixteenth century Muskerry (see last week), one of its concerns was the showing of castles and churches – his castles are marked with a circle and a dot whilst his churches are demarcated with a snowman type delineation), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11283

 

16 April 2015, Part 19, Tudor Ships on the Lee (George Carew’s Map of Cork or plan of the walled town of Cork is different to that of Muskerry. Dated to the late sixteenth century, sometime in the 1590s perhaps, the map depicts numerous structures, which emphasise Cork as a port and a place to be protected as an English outpost of trade), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11306

 

23 April 2015, Part 20, Living on the Tides (George Carew in his Map of Cork, c.1600 gives a representational focus on Tudor style ships. To the viewer of Carew map, they are meant to be symbolic of a strong empire and a well protected port such as Cork. For all intensive purposes they were floating fortresses), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11316

 

30 April 2015, Part 21, Shandon’s Old Castle (George Carew’s map of Cork, c.1600, places an emphasis on a two towered structure called Shandon Castle. Aligning old maps with newer ones of the city through the ages the Castle was on the site of what is now the Firkin Crane), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11342

 

7 May 2015, Part 22, Tales of Old Shandon (By April 1600, Shandon Castle had become confiscated and it became the official residence of George Carew, the Lord President of Munster. It became the centre of English power in the south of Ireland), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11357

 

14 May 2015, Part 23, Franciscans at the North Abbey (Depictions of the walled town of Cork in George Carew’s Pacata Hibernia, c.1600 emphasises a Franciscan Abbey on what is now the North Mall), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11367

 

21 May 2015, Part 24, Ruins of the North Abbey (Perhaps, the most known remaining feature of the North Abbey is its water well. The well is situated at the foot of a rock face, on the grounds of the Franciscan Well Brewery and is located within a stone-built well house), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11380

 

28 May 2015, Sweet Charity at the Firkin Crane (Diving into directing Sweet Charity, the musical at the Firkin Crane (4-7 June) has brought enormous and exciting challenges. It goes without saying that a rich vein of musicality runs underneath our city), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11400

 

4 June 2015, Part 25, Stories of Red Abbey (George Carew’s Map of Cork, c.1600 also places an emphasis on the Augustinian Abbey. The central bell tower of the church of Red Abbey is a relic of the Anglo-Norman colonisation and is one of the last remaining visible structures, which dates to the era of the walled town of Cork), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11406

 

11 June 2015, Part 26, Inscribed in Stone at Red Abbey (By the mid eighteenth century, parts of the buildings of Red Abbey were used as part of a sugar refinery. This refinery was burnt down accidentally in December 1799), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11422

 

18 June 2015, Part 27, Stories from St Mary’s of the Isle Abbey (Carew’s Map of Cork, c.1600 shows the Dominican Abbey on a marshy island to the south-west of the walled town. The map illustrates a church with a large steeple with an adjacent water mill built next to the river), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11442

 

25 June 2015, Summer Historical Walking Tours (Summer is upon us, time to get out about and explore the city. Check out the historical walking tours below I have on over the next week), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11448

 

2 July 2015, Part 28, The Dominicans in Early Cork (Following on from a previous article, by 1721 it is detailed that the Dominican order had moved from St Marie’s of the Isle to Shandon to establish a new church site. By the 1830s they were campaigning and fundraising for the beautiful St Mary’s Dominican Church, Pope’s Quay), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11479

 

9 July 2015, Article 800, The Altar Stone of Gougane Barra (The stone’s recent stealing has disillusioned me. Who could take such a historic object?), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11486

 

16 July 2015, Celebrating a Unique Cork Rebel! (This year coincides with the fourth Mother Jones festival and summer school in Shandon and it takes place from Wednesday 29 July until Saturday 1 August (1 August is now known as Mother Jones’ Day in Cork), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11498

 

23 July 2015, Shandon and Blackpool Historical Walking Tours (I have two more summer walking tours coming up – this time the focus is on the Shandon and Blackpool area), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11517

 

30 July 2015, Part 29, Skeletons beneath our Feet (We discussed the Dominican Abbey at what is now Crosses Green. Exciting finds were unearthed in 1993 during the placing of foundations for the Crosses Green Apartment Complex), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11528

 

6 August 2015, Part 30, Colonising a Swamp (President of the Munster Plantation George Carew’s Map of Cork circa 1600 shows the town wall of Cork encompassing an oval shaped settlement on a swamp. His emphasis is on showing off the infrastructure), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11534

 

13 August 2015, Cork Heritage Open Day 2015 (Another Cork heritage open day is looming. The 2015 event will take place on Saturday 22 August. For one day only, nearly 40 buildings opened their doors free of charge for this special event.), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11542

 

20 August 2015, Kieran’s Heritage Week Tours, 22-30 August 2015 (National Heritage Week is upon us again at the end of next week (22nd – 30th August), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11553

 

27 August 2015, Kieran’s Heritage Week Tours, 22-30 August 2015 (We’re into the final few days of National Heritage week. I have two tours left this week), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11588

 

3 September 2015, Kieran’s Little Book of Cork (The Little Book of Cork is a new book penned by myself and published by History Press Ireland. It aims to be compendium of fascinating, obscure, strange and entertaining facts about Cork City), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11605

 

10 September 2015, Discover Cork: Schools’ Heritage Project 2015-16 (This year coincides with the thirteenth year of the Discover Cork: Schools’ Heritage Project. Again launched for the new school term, the Project is open to schools in Cork; at primary level to the pupils of fourth, fifth and sixth class and at post-primary from first to sixth years), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11638

 

17 September 2015, Thomas Kent Returns Home (The north Cork village of Castlelyons will come to a standstill on this Friday as it finally welcomes home the remains of Thomas Kent, who along with Roger Casement was the only person outside of the capital to be executed in the aftermath of the 1916 Rising. Following his execution by firing squad at Cork Prison on 9 May 1916 Thomas Kent’s remains were interred in an unmarked grave within the prison compound), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11654

 

24 September 2015, Kieran’s North Cork Through Time (It’s been a very busy year. The second of three books I have been involved in penning this year focuses on postcards of historic landscapes of North Cork. Entitled North Cork Through Time, it is compiled by Dan Breen of Cork Museum and I and published by Amberley Press), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11662

 

1 October 2015, Part 31, The Construction of Elizabeth Fort (Continuing on to explore the old maps of the City, the colourful Plan of Cork c.1600 based in the Hardiman Collection in Trinity College Dublin places an emphasis on an ordered walled town on a swamp complete with houses, laneways, drawbridges), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11675

 

8 October 2015, Part 32, The Theatre of Empire (The online map archive of the city through the ages makes for great viewing at www.corkpastandpresent.ie. The early seventeenth century is well represented. One beautifully engraved and hand-coloured map is by John Speed (1552-1629) of the province of Munster taken from The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine (1611-12), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11688

 

15 October 2015, Part 33, A Busy Seventeenth Century Settlement (Cork in the first decades of the seventeenth century was valued as the third most important port after Dublin and Waterford. The growth in prosperity was mainly attributed to the increase in utilization of the surrounding pastoral hinterland surrounding the city), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11698

 

22 October 2015, Part 34, Wood, Iron and a Seventeenth Century Millionaire (In Munster between 1607 and 1630, there was also a rapid growth in iron production. High international prices contributed to the construction of iron manufacturing in counties Cork and Waterford, which were situated near the Bandon, the Lee and the Blackwater Rivers. Timber, charcoal and labour were less costly than in England), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11711

 

29 October 2015, Part 35, Boyle’s West Cork Towns (I mentioned Richard Boyle (1566-1643), the first Earl of Cork, and his interest in creating industrial complexes such as ironworks and associated plantation settlements. His main estates were in counties Cork and Waterford but he also owned significant property in county Kerry, including lands in the baronies of Corkaguiny and Dunkerron South), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11720

 

5 November 2015, Part 36, Old Territories in East Cork (John Speed’s map of c.1610, part his collection of maps of Britain and Ireland from The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine (1611-12), showcases clusters of settlements to the east of Cork harbour extending into West Waterford), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11752

 

12 November 2015, Part 37, The Gems of the Fitzgeralds (East Cork of the early 1600s possessed a number of old Fitzgerald family castles, which passed to Richard Boyle (1566-1643), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11766

 

19 November 2015, Part 38, A Defender of Church and Town (The vast estates of the Fitzgeralds, the Earl of Desmond dynasty (see last week), were confiscated in the reign of Elizabeth I, and granted to various English settlers (called planters or undertakers), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11773

 

26 November 2015, Kieran’s New Book – Ring of Kerry Postcard Collection (Vibrancy, a wild vibrancy, is perhaps the best way to describe the Ring of Kerry. Exposed by raw elements, the landscape is windswept and awe inspiring. This book follows on from my previous work of exploring the nature of postcards in the south west region and how they helped to place-make and construct local, regional and national identity), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11786

 

3 December 2015, Part 39, The Boyle Family Legacy (At Richard Boyle’s monument in St Mary’s Church in Youghal, some of his sixteen children are represented in small statue form), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11796

 

10 December 2015, Part 40, Robert Boyle – A Man of Science (Continuing on from last week to explore the legacy of Richard Boyle’s children, Catherine Boyle (1615-1691) was the seventh child of Richard Boyle and Catherine Fenton), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11809

 

17 December 2015, Part 41, The Boyles: From London to Charleville (The line of Richard Boyle’s family was long. Apart from those introduced the last number of weeks, the children of his household in the decade of the 1610s and 1620s included: Geoffrey Boyle (1616-1617), Dorothy Boyle (1617-1688),Sir Lewis Boyle, 1st Viscount of Kinalmeaky (1619-1642), Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrey (1621-1679), Mary Boyle (1625-1678), Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon (1625-1699) and Margaret Boyle (1629-1637), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11816

 

23 December 2015, Part 42, Landmark histories at Lismore Castle (The setting for the construction of the Boyle legacy was the impressive Lismore Castle and beautiful town of Lismore. A building of national importance, the castle incorporates the framework of various building projects dating primarily to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries), http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11840

 

7 January 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 43), The Men of the Free Plain
Further upstream from Lismore Castle on the beautiful River Blackwater on Speed’s map of the province of Munster (c.1610), Fermoy is depicted. A castle like structure is shown on the map. Historical panels in the town note that the settlement is said to have originated in 1170 through a foundation of a Cistercian abbey by the Roche family. On Speed’s map, the lands of the Roches are demarcated west of Fermoy and the lands of the Condons to the North. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=1185

 

14 January 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 44), John Anderson: King of the Road
Last week the column explored some of the early history of Fermoy and the importance of its location on the River Blackwater. On the northern side of the bridge is an elegant sculptural piece by bronze specialist artist Jarlath Daly dedicated to John Anderson who developed the town of Fermoy in the early nineteenth century. In 1791, John Anderson, having purchased four-sixths of the ancient manor, erected a hotel and some good houses, and laid the foundation of the town’s future prosperity and growth. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11874

 

21 January 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 45), Stories at the Plain of the Rock
Upstream on the Blackwater from Fermoy and shown on John Speed’s Map of Munster c.1610 (from The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine, 1611-12) is the historic town of Mallow. The name is derived from the Irish Magh Ealla (The Plain of the Rock). The original Mallow castle was built by the Anglo-Normans in 1185 AD, after the native O’Keeffe’s had been dispossessed. In 1282, the Desmond Fitzgerald’s built a new castle. Soon afterwards, a Baron of the Geraldines, Thomas Fitzmaurice, traded his land in Kerrylocknaun, Connaught, with the Desmond Fitzgeralds. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11884

 

28 January 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 46), Plantations at Mallow
Early seventeenth-century Mallow was an eventful place. This is shown in the historic maps of the region, in structures such as the ruined building of Mallow Castle and in the complex and surviving documentation from this era. Continuing on from last week Mallow Castle-born and resident Elizabeth Norrey was married to Sir John Jephson. They had four sons and four daughters. Their eldest son William became a major general in the English army and was a MP for Cork in 1656. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11893

 

4 February 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 47), Inquisition at Mallow
Continuing on from last week, an inquisition taken in the year 1611 reveals more information about the nature of early seventeenth century Mallow and the principal landowners. There were several who leased lands within the Jephson manor including the Hydes, Spensers (see last week), Cuffes, and Audleys. To fulfil the plantation of this area of North Cork, they all would have built their own fortified house as such on these lands. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11900

 

11 February 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 48), Jephson Legacies at Mallow
Mallow town developed rapidly in the late sixteenth century and seventeenth century as an English plantation town. Mallow castle was burned down by supporters of James II in 1689, marking the end of its use. Instead of restoring the house, the Jephsons converted other buildings into a new residence. Shortly afterwards a new bridge nearby was built over the River Blackwater. The section of four small arches on the town side of Mallow Bridge is all what remains of the first stone bridge over the river. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11917

 

18 February 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 49), Confederates, Dispositions and Surveys
The last number of weeks the column has been investigating some of the context of the historic maps of Cork held within Cork City Library – and in recent weeks exploring early seventeenth century maps and tying them into some of the seventeenth century histories of County Cork. The elaborate map portfolio in the library and now online at www.corkpastandpresent.ie also possesses a copy of a map of the city and suburbs between the years 1656-1658. The map is a copy of part of the Down Survey of Ireland, undertaken by the Cromwellian regime in the years 1656-1658. Such maps are more elaborate than the John Speed maps from c.1610 (see previous weeks) – in their expansive detail, and more political in their showcasing of knowledge about Irish landholdings and the English control of lands. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11929

 

25 February 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 50), The Battle for Liscarroll Castle
The Confederate army in their first incidents of war in late 1641 cleared Kilkenny and Tipperary of the English recently planted there (see last week’s column). It was decided to march to Cork to try and take the county and city. The Roches, McDonagh McCarthys, O’Callaghans, O’Keeffes and Magners joined the swollen ranks of the Confederates at Two Pot House. Fast forward through campaigns in Limerick and its region, and towards the end of August, 1642, General Garret Barry had moved into Cork and advanced on Liscarroll Castle at the head of an army comprising 7,000 men, 500 horse, a train of artillery and a giant battering ram. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11943

 

3 March 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 51), Confederate Bloodbaths
At the Battle of Liscarroll in September 1642, over 600 confederate Irish Catholics were killed including a high proportion of officers (see last week). The local Catholic gentry were decimated by the battle. The Fitzgerald family of the house of Desmond lost 18 members. English commander Lord Inchiquin executed 50 officers whom he had taken prisoner, hanging them subsequently. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11959

 

 

10 March 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 52), A Besieged Cork 1642
The defence of County Cork from the Confederate army rested with the Lord President of Munster, Sir William St Leger (1586 –1642). Very little is compiled in a general sense of what happened in the wars around the walled town of Cork. I came across an interesting and old article on the Siege of Cork in 1642 by James Buckley in the “Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society” from 1916. In an attempt to reconstruct a balanced point of view, he draws from seventeenth century manuscripts, letters and House of Commons speeches. He denotes that in the year leading up to Liscarroll and West Cork battles in 1642 (see previous articles), St Leger frequently requested for men of war and munitions from Dublin. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11974

 

17 March 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 53), Cessations, Confederates and Crown Supporters
During the Confederate wars of the 1640s, one leading crown supporter in Munster was the prominent military commander and fifth Lord Inchiquin, Murrough O’ Brien. He ruthlessly kept control of south-western Ireland until the Cessation of Arms was signed between the Confederates and the King’s representative, the Marquis of Ormond, in September 1643. Then Inchiquin’s concerns began over his future as lord in the province and he defected to the side of the anti-crown supporters or the anti-royalist side. The religious policies of Charles I, united with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, produced the antipathy and mistrust of reformed groups such as the Puritans and Calvinists, who perceived his views too Catholic. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=11991

 

24 March 2016, Remembering 1916, Centenary Programmes: Reflecting 1916-2016
For a century, the stories of the Easter Rising and the Irish Citizen Army have morphed into powerful national metaphors for Irish identity. The events are written and spoken about in almost mythic and romanticised terms, encoded and re-encoded, distilled and re-distilled into key events and moments in the Easter period of 1916 and onwards into subsequent years – the idealism of democracy, the Rising, the Rebellion, the Volunteers, the reading of the Proclamation, the Irish Citizen Army, the standing down of those ready to fight outside of Dublin, the role of the GPO and its shelling by British forces, the violence, the surrender, the executed leaders, the sorrow, the questions of clemency, the morality, the internment camps, the beginning of the war of Independence, the role of objects of nostalgic currency such as participation medals, copies of the actual proclamation, the citizen army flag, letters and documentation. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=12015

 

31 March 2016, Cork Harbour Memories (Part 54), Cromwell Comes to Cork
On 30 January 1649, the parliament in England arranged the beheading of Charles I and plans were made to restore the throne to parliament itself through the proclamation of a new king, Charles II (continued from last week). To suppress any royalist support in Ireland, a new army was established under the leadership of the new Lord Lieutenant in Ireland, Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell landed in Drogheda on 15 August 1649 and swiftly took the town for the new parliament. The town’s defenders did not surrender and the town was besieged accordingly. Stories relate that three thousand combatants lay dead on the streets of Drogheda, following Cromwell’s attack. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=12046

 

7 April 2016, Discover Cork: Schools’ Heritage Project 2016
This year marks the thirteenth year of the Discover Cork: Schools’ Heritage Project co-ordinated by myself. The Project for 2016 recently culminated in two award ceremonies. It is open to schools in Cork City and County – at primary level to the pupils of fourth, fifth and sixth class and at post-primary from first to sixth years. A total of 44 schools in Cork took part this year. Circa 1200 students participated in the process and approx 200 projects were submitted on all aspects of Cork’s history. http://kieranmccarthy.ie/?p=12057