2022 Journeys to a Free State 1922

6 January 2022, Journeys to a Free State: The Dilemmas of the Treaty

Dáil Éireann resumed its Treaty debate on 3 February 1922 after a short New Year break. A large crowd had assembled at Dublin’s University Buildings, Earlsfort Terrace. A bitterly cold wind was experienced, accompanied at intervals by showers. Inside a range of speakers for and against the Treaty took the floor. On this day, two Cork TDs intervened – J J Walsh, an advocate for the Treaty, and Lord Mayor and TD Donal Óg O’Callaghan, who was an advocate against the Treaty. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 6 January 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

13 January 2022, Journeys to a Free State: A Treaty is Ratified

At ten minutes to 9pm on Saturday night, 7 January 1922, Dáil Éireann voted on the Articles of Agreement or peace treaty. It was ratified by 64 votes to 57. The division followed days of animated debate with the closing speakers being Cathal Brugha and Arthur Griffith. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 13 January 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

20 January 2022, Journeys to a Free State: Mary MacSwiney Speaks

Last week’s column highlighted the Treaty vote that was taken and the intervention of Cork TD Mary MacSwiney expressing her disappointment and full support for the ideals of Éamon de Valera. Mary MacSwiney was one of the earliest speakers to take the floor on the Treaty debate. She intervened just after the vote on 7 January and remained vocally against the Treaty for years to come. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 20 January 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

27 January 2022, Journeys to a Free State: Evacuation and Amnesty Begins

By 12 January 1922, all over Munster, preparations were in progress for the evacuation by the British military and police. Inventories were taken, baggage were packed up and were made ready for departure. In some districts special trains were arranged to remove troops whilst steamer accommodation was also made ready. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 27 January 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

3 February 2022, Journeys to a Free State: The Cumann na mBan Meets

On 5 February 1922, near500 delegates attended the annual convention of Cumann na mBan held in the Mansion House, Dublin. Many of the delegates wore the official uniform of the organisation. Countess Markievicz presided. The proceedings began shortly after 11am. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 3 February 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

10 February 2022, Journeys to a Free State: De Valera Comes to Cork

On Sunday 12 February 1922, the Anti-Treaty side marked the launching of a determined campaign by Éamon de Valera and his followers in Dáil Éireann. They were against the policy adopted by Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins in recommending the Treaty. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town Article, 10 February 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

17 February 2022, Season 20 for Discover Cork Schools’ Heritage Project

This month marks the conclusion of the 20th school season of the Discover Cork: Schools’ Heritage Project. Over the past twenty years the school wing of my local history work aims to engage younger generation to take up an interest in the history, heritage, and geography of the city. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 17 February 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

24 February 2022, Journeys to a Free State: Challenges of Commercial Life

There were plenty concerns for Cork society in early 1922. In early February, the 39th annual report of the Cork Incorporated Chamber of Shipping and Commerce – and one of two Chambers of Commerce in the city at the time – was published in the Cork Examiner. Reflecting on the previous twelve months, the Chamber report describes that during 1921 they hosted fifteen meetings of the Chamber’s central council and several meetings of subcommittees dealing with special subjects were held. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town Article, 24 February 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

3 March 2022, Journeys to a Free State: The Henry Ford Motion

During simmering tensions amongst Treaty and anti-Treaty factions in February and March 1922, a motion passed by eighteen members of Cork Corporation created another stream of tensions amongst Cork citizens. The motion concerned the Ford factory in The Marina and a call to Henry Ford that the target of 2,000 employees as set out in the lease agreement between the Corporation and the company be put in place within two months of the motion. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 3 March 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

10 March 2022, Journeys to a Free State: Collins’ Rallying Call

The first political rally that Michael Collins attended outside Dublin to promote support for the Treaty was in Cork City. All of the regional newspapers of the time including the Cork Examiner had media spreads on the rally. On the second weekend in March 1922, Michael Collins travelled from Dublin to Cork by train, accompanied by Fionán Lynch TD, Commandant Seán MacEoin or MacKeown TD, Seán Milroy TD, and J J Walsh TD. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 10 March 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

17 March 2022, Journeys to a Free State: Deputations and Expectations

The pro Treaty rally hosted by Michael Collins on Cork’s Grand Parade on Sunday 12 March was deemed a success. The following day, Monday 13 March, before taking the afternoon train back to Dublin, Michael took the time with Diarmuid Fawsitt from the Provisional Government’s Ministry of Economics to visit and take a tour of the Ford factory. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 17 March 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

24 March 2022, Journeys to a Free State: Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, 1921-22

The annual general meeting of the Cork Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital was held at noon on Saturday 11 March 1922. In 1868 at the age of 24 Henry MacNaughton-Jones founded a 30-bed Cork Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, in a building at the western end of Sheares Street. He was also physician there between 1868 and 1882.

31 March 2022, Kieran’s New Publication, Celebrating Cork

Celebrating Cork (2022, Amberley Publishing) is my new publication, which explores some of the many reasons why Cork is special in the hearts of Corkonians and visitors. This book was penned in the Spring and Summer of 2020 during which the COVID-19 pandemic challenged the resilience of every city and region across Ireland and Europe.  Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 31 March 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

7 April 2022, Journeys to a Free State: The Capture of the Upnor

On 29 March 1922, the Upnor, which was a British arms ship, was captured by members of the Cobh IRA company. It was departing Cork Harbour with its second load of arms, which amounted to 400 rifles, 40 machines guns, hundreds of thousands of rounds of .303 ammunition and numerous crates of high explosive. A plan was devised to capture the ship. Michael Burke, Officer in Command of Cobh IRA wrote an account of the raid on the ship. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 7 April 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

14 April 2022, Journeys to a Free State: A Civil War Looms

By mid-April 1922, tensions between the pro and anti-Treaty sides intensified further. Words such as “civil war” began to creep into speeches of the anti-Treaty side. The first acts of disobedience of Irish Free State law also occurred. This was the beginning of the Irish Civil War. On 14 April 1922, about 200 anti-Treaty IRA militants, with Rory O’Connor as their spokesman, occupied the Four Courts in Dublin. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 14 April 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

21 April 2022, Journeys to a Free State: Disbanding the Royal Irish Constabulary

On 12 April 1922, the handing over of the city’s RIC Barracks began. There was considerable activity in the vicinity of the Bridewell and Tuckey Street when both those barracks, as well as the annexe on the latter, on the Grand Parade, were handed over by the RIC to an officer of the IRA from Dublin. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 21 April 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

28 April 2022, Journeys to a Free StateThe Potential of the Port

In the spring of 1922, the Cork Harbour Commissioners commissioned Mr George F Nicholson, chief engineer of the Port of Seattle, to come to Cork in order to research and write up a paper on the challenges in the development of the port of Cork in the short term. George gave a public lecture in Cobh on his work in March 1922. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 28 April 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

 5 May 2022, Journeys to a Free State: A New Reconstruction Committee is Formed

The meeting between the Irish Provisional Government representative Diarmuid Fawsitt and the Cork Reconstruction Committee of Corporation of Cork had been long awaited. For over fifteen months since the Burning of Cork on 11-12 December 1920 there was a great desire to have the rebuilding proceeded with as rapidly as possible and for the lack of compensation forthcoming resolved. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 5 May 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

12 May 2022, Journeys to a Free StateA New Connolly Hall

On 14 May 1922, the Cork branch of the Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union observed the anniversary of the execution of James Connolly, and later that day began a new chapter in their work in their new premises at the former Soldiers’ Home on King’s Terrace, Lower Glanmire Road. This was to become their future headquarters for almost 54 years. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 12 May 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

19 May 2022, Journeys to a Free StateThe Evacuation of Victoria Barracks

The last detachments of military, in the occupation of Cork’s Victoria Barracks, filed out on 18 May 1922 at 7pm. Subsequently they embarked on the SS Classic from Custom House Quay. The formalities of the handing over were entirely unceremonious. At about 5pm Captain Hugh MacNeil IRA, came to the barracks, accompanied by another officer representing the Irish Provisional Government. He was met by Captain J G Maghahy, Divisional Officer, Royal Engineers, who escorted him through the buildings. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 19 May 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

26 May 2022, Journeys to a Free StateOpportunities in Belgium

On 22 May 1922 Count Gerald O’Kelly de Gallagh et Tycooly, the Irish Provisional Government Consul at Brussels, arrived in Cork on a trade mission. His ongoing work was important for the economic development of Ireland and for regions such as Cork, and especially as the Provisional Government was heading out on its own to carve out new markets. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 26 May 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

2 June 2022, Journeys to a Free StateThe Shaw Commission Arrives

The Compensation (Ireland) Commission for the Irish War of Independence arrived in Cork on 31 May 1922. The Commission was set up jointly by the Irish Provisional and British Governments in 1922. It would sit in Ireland under the presidency of, originally, Lord Shaw of Dunfermline, and later, Sir Alexander Wood-Renton. The Commission’s terms of reference were limited to the deliberation of claims in respect of damage or injury incurred between 21 January 1919 and 11 July 1921. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 2 June 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

9 June 2022, Journeys to a Free StateDeValera Comes Back to Cork,

On Saturday 10 June 1922, Éamon de Valera arrived in Cork by train at 9.15pm for a series of election rallies across the county. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 9 June 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

16 June 2022, Journeys to a Free StateCollins Comes Back to Cork

On 14 June 1922 Michael Collins arrived to rally support for his election cause. He arrived with Cork TD J J Walsh. The general public had not more than a couple of hours’ notice of the arrival of the distinguished visitors. The train was due to arrive at 9.15 pm, but long before that hour the station premises and yard were crowded with people while immediately outside there was a vast gathering. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 16 June 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

23 June 2022, Journeys to a Free State: General Election Fall Out

On Friday 16 June 1922, the 1922 Irish general election took place. The result of the election in Cork City was announced shortly before midnight on Saturday 17 June 1922. Some thousands of people waited to the hear the end result outside Cork City Courthouse. The first step was reached at 7.30pm, when businessman Mr Robert Day, having secured 6,836 votes, the quota being 6,070, was declared elected. At intervals afterwards Alderman De Róiste and Alderman JJ Walsh, having received the quota, were also safe. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 23 June 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

30 June 2022, Launch of Shandon Heritage Audio Trail

A self-guided audio tour of the Shandon historic quarter has been launched by Shandon Area Renewal Association (SARA) SARA is an advocacy group representing the residents and businesses in the Shandon Area. Their Tidy Towns committee does Trojan work keeping the area not only tidy but welcoming to all who live in and visit the area. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 30 June 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

7 July 2022, Journeys to a Free State: The Munster Republic

In the midst of the shelling by the National Army of the Irish Provisional Government of the Four Courts in Dublin from 28 June to 5 July 1922, ani-treaty champion Eamon de Valera issued a hard hitting press statement. On 7 July, he noted that the “so-called Provisional Government is not the Government”. He observed that the legitimate Government of Ireland is Dáil Éireann, which is the Government of the Republic. However, he highlighted that “the Republic has not been disestablished”. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 7 July 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

14 July 2022, Journeys to a Free State: Calls for Peace

On 17 July 1922 at 12noon a peace conference was summoned at the request of the chairman Frank Daly of the Cork Harbour Commissioners. It was one of the most influential and representative meetings held in Cork for a considerable time. Resolutions were passed demanding a cessation of hostilities across the country and calling upon Dáil Éireann to meet. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 14 July 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

21 July 2022, Mother Jones Festival 2022

The 2022 Mother Jones festival and summer school in Shandon– the eleventh annual festival – will take place from Thursday 28 July to Saturday 30 July. It is dedicated to the memory of Mary Harris/Mother Jones and to inspirational people everywhere who fight for social justice. The website for all the details of the event is at www.motherjonescork.com. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 21 July 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

28 July 2022, Journeys to a Free State: The Nation’s Death Knell

The build-up of Civil War action continued at pace across Ireland in late July 1922. A Cork Examiner editorial on 20 July 1922 reported on the isolation of the South of Ireland owing to the stoppage of telegraphic communication with Dublin, Northern Ireland, the Midlands. East and West Limerick, Waterford, and Britain. This had a knock-on effect of loss on businesses and their activities. 

4 August 2022, Journeys to a Free StateThe Battle of Douglas

Over the next weekend, 5-8 August, the town of Passage will be the host to a series of major historical events. The inspiring committee of the Passage West Maritime Museum is currently engaged, with the specific aim of furthering reconciliation, in an initiative to acknowledge the centenary of one of the most significant events of the Irish Civil War – the 1922 Battle of Douglas. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 4 August 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

11 August 2022, Kieran’s Heritage Week Tours, 13-21 August 2022

It is great to be back to physical tours after a hiatus of two years with Covid. So far this summer, my tours across the city’s suburbs for locals have, in particular, been very busy. Certainly, the Covid period and this post Covid era has brought a renewed interest in people’s local areas and their development and sense of place. The tours I have chosen for National Heritage Week this year are all important areas in the city’s development plus they all have a unique sense of place and identity. I will host seven tours, and all are free. There is no booking required bar the one for Cork City Hall for Cork Heritage Open Day. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 11 August 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

18 August 2022, Journeys to a Free StateThe Re-taking of Cork City

Kilkenny-born journalist Frank Geary (1891-1961) had a front row seat of the unfolding Irish Civil War. In 1922 he joined the Irish Independent as a staff reporter. On 3 August 1922, he was sent by his editor to cover the unfolding Civil War in Cork. To get to Cork he had to sail via Liverpool because all Irish regional roads were blocked, but he was then the first to get news out of Cork. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 18 August 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy

25 August 2022, Journeys to a Free StateThe Death of Michael Collins

Just over a week after reclaiming Cork City for the Irish Provisional Government, General Emmet Dalton played host to National Army Commander in Chief Michael Collins. On Sunday, 20 August 1922, Michael arrived from Dublin with his convoy to begin checking out the Republican manoeuvres in West Cork. Kieran’s Our City, Our Town, 25 August 2022 | Cllr. Kieran McCarthy